Conditions for Using These Assessments

All of the assessments in the Paul’s No Cost Assessments section of are copyrighted. They were developed by me and my colleagues.

You have my permission for free noncommercial research/teaching use of any of the assessments that are in the Paul’s No Cost Assessments section. This includes student theses and dissertations, as well as other student research projects. Copies of the scale can be reproduced in a thesis or dissertation as long as the copyright notice is included, as shown in the downloadable copy of each scale.

For commercial uses there is a fee for using these scales. A commercial use means you are charging someone a fee to provide a service that includes use of one or more of these scales. Contact me at to discuss fees for commercial use.


You are welcome to translate any of these scales into another language if you agree to send me a copy of the translation. Word (.doc or .docx) is best, but .pdf is also acceptable. Be sure to include the copyright statement on the translated version, as well as credit the person who did the translation and the year.

Sharing Results

A condition for free use of these assessments is that you share results. The results I need include:

  1. Means per subscale and total score
  2. Sample size
  3. Brief description of sample, e.g., 220 hospital nurses. I don’t need to know the organization name if it is sensitive.
  4. Name of country where collected, and if outside of the U.S., the language used. I am especially interested in nonAmerican samples.
  5. Standard deviations per subscale and total score (optional)
  6. Coefficient alpha per subscale and total score (optional)

Results can be shared by providing an e-copy of a published or unpublished research report (e.g., a conference paper, dissertation, journal article, thesis, etc.) where one or more of these assessments are used.

You can share the material with me via e-mail: