Behavior of Leader

Health-Promoting Leadership

  • R.I.G.H.T. Leadership. Gulseren et al. 2021, Canadian Journal of Administrative Science. Measures five dimensions of healthy leadership model: Recognition, Involvement, Supporting growth & development, Emphasizing health & safety, Fostering teamwork.
  • Signs of Struggle (SOS) scale. Dimoff & Kelloway 2019, Work & Stress. Behavioral mental health checklist for managers to use with subordinates.

Leadership Style

Leadership Types

Quality of Relationship with Leader


Values-Based Leadership

  • Authentic Leadership Inventory, ALI. Measures dimensions of Self-Awareness, Balanced Processing, Internalized Moral Perspective and Relational Transparency. By Neider & Schriesheim, 2011.
  • Ethical leadership. Mayer et al. 2013, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 3-item measure.
  • Ethical Leadership. Yukl et al. 2013, Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies.
  • Ethical Leadership at Work Questionnaire ELW. Kalshoven et al. 2011, The Leadership Quarterly. Subscales of Concern for sustainability, Ethical guidance, Fairness, Integrity, People orientation, Power sharing, Role clarification.
  • Ethical Leadership Inventory ELI. Spangenberg & Theron 2005, South African Journal of Business Management. Subscales Creating and sharing, Enabling, Encouraging, Implementing, Leading, Stimulating.
  • Ethical Leadership Questionnaire ELQ. Langlois et al. 2014, Journal of Educational Administration. Subscales of Care, Critique, Justice.
  • Ethical Leadership Scale ELS. By Brown et al. 2005, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.
  • Leader Authenticity Scale LAS. Henderson & Hoy 1983, Educational and Psychological Research.
  • Leadership Virtues Questionnaire VLQ. Riggio et al. 2010, Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research. Subscales of Fortitude, Justice, Prudence, Temperance.
  • Perceived Leader Integrity Scale PLIS. Craig & Gustafson 1998, Leadership Quarterly.
  • Servant Leadership Survey, SLS. Van Dierendonck & Nuijten 2011, Journal of Business and Psychology. Subscales of Accountability, Authenticity, Courage, Empowerment, Forgiveness, Humility, Standing back, Stewardship.
  • Servant Leadership. Liden et al. 2008, Leadership Quarterly. Subscales of Behaving ethically, Conceptual skills, Creating value for the community, Emotional healing, Empowering, Helping subordinates grow and succeed, Putting subordinates first.