Behavior of Leader

  • Abusive supervision. Tepper 2000, Academy of Management Journal.
  • Empowering Leadership Questionnaire, ELQ. By Arnold et al. 2000, Journal of Organizational Behavior. Five subscales are Leading by Example, Participative Decision-Making, Coaching, Informing, Showing Concern/Interacting with the Team.
  • Leader Indecisiveness. Adapted for use in a study of sales people by Mulki et al. 2002, Journal of Business Research from the Germeija & De Boeck 2002 European Journal of Psychological Assessment general scale.
  • Leader Integrity. Simmons et al., 2007, Journal of Applied Psychology.
  • Micromanagement. Limon & Dilekçi 2021, Participatory Educational Research. Dimensions of Unable to subordinate self, Time manipulation, Excessive control over methodology, Excessive reporting. Developed for school principals; could be adapted for other leaders.
  • Micromanagement. Hume 2019. Thesis. Available from Proquest.
  • Supervisory Support. Greenhaus, Parasuraman & Wormley, 1990, Academy of Management Journal.

Health-Promoting Leadership

  • R.I.G.H.T. Leadership. Gulseren et al. 2021, Canadian Journal of Administrative Science. Measures five dimensions of healthy leadership model: Recognition, Involvement, Supporting growth & development, Emphasizing health & safety, Fostering teamwork.
  • Signs of Struggle (SOS) scale. Dimoff & Kelloway 2019, Work & Stress. Behavioral mental health checklist for managers to use with subordinates.

Leadership Style

Leadership Types

Quality of Relationship with the Leader


Values-Based Leadership